Crohn’s & Colitis Glossary

Anti-OmpC (outer membrane protein C):

the antibody to a specific protein on the outer membrane, recently identified as a significant biomarker. New data shows that anti-OmpC levels are high among members of families that have a history of both Crohn’s and colitis.

ASCA (anti-saccharomyces cerevesiae):

a serology test useful in distinguishing Crohn’s disease from ulcerative colitis and predicting disease course.

Biomarkers:

proteins in the body that may be measured by laboratory tests to assist in diagnosis and management of disease.

Biopsy:

a tissue sample provided to a pathologist to help diagnose and classify disease. 

Calprotectin:

a stool test for intestinal inflammation that aids in predicting active disease.

CBC (complete blood count):

a laboratory blood test that helps to detect anemia, infection, and inflammation.

CBiR1 (Anti-Flagellin):

this antibody may be a marker of Crohn’s disease complicated by fistulas, perforations, or other serious problems.

CRP (C-reactive protein):

a laboratory test that indicates non-specific inflammation in the body.

CT (computed tomography):

an imaging test that uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures with the body.

CTE (computed tomography enterography):

a variation of the CT scan where the patient swallows special contrast agents to give a sharp outline of the intestines in the X-rays.

DEXA (bone densitometry scan):

an X-ray that assesses the thickness of bones and risk for osteoporosis (thin bones) and fractures.

EIM (extraintestinal manifestations of IBD):

signs and symptoms outside of the gastrointestinal tract associated with IBD.

Electrolytes:

laboratory test panel including serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide that may indicate dehydration and other complications or medication side effects.

ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography):

a type of endoscopy that utilizes X-ray to diagnose a liver disease called primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

Epidemiology:

Incidence and geographic distribution of disease and the related factors.

ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate):

a laboratory blood test for non-specific inflammation.

Granuloma:

a collection of cells in the intestinal lining, visible under the microscope, that indicate the body’s attempt to get rid of a foreign material; sometimes seen in Crohn’s disease, but not always present.

Gut:

the intestine or bowel.

Health economics:

Efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.

Hemoglobin and Hematocrit:

Measurements of red blood cell number and volume, found in the CBC, useful in determining anemia.

Immune response:

Increase in and activation of immune cells and release of pro-inflammatory molecules  in the blood circulation and in the intestinal lumen

Intestinal Epithelial Homeostasis:

Normal state of the intestinal lining

Lactoferrin:

a stool test for intestinal inflammation that aids in predicting active IBD.

MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography):

a type of MRI that allows the physician to see images of the bile ducts, which are similar to ERCP images.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging):

an imaging test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures within the body.

Mucosal lining:

the inner lining of the small intestine.

p-ANCA (perinulclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies):

a serology test that may aid in diagnosing ulcerative colitis, distinguishing it from Crohn’s disease, and predicting disease course.

Pathophysiology:

abnormal physiological events.

PPD: (purified protein derivative):

tuberculosis (TB) skin test, advised for all patients taking biologic therapies, to assess the presence of latent and active TB disease.

Radiographic:

Relating to the process that depends on X-rays.

SBFT/SBS:

(small bowel follow-through/small bowel series): an imaging test that evaluates the small intestine, involving swallowing barium, after which serial x-rays are taken.

Small bowel enteroclysis:

an imaging test that evaluates the small intestine by infusing barium and air through a tube inserted into the small intestine via the nose.

Serology:

a blood test to identify antibodies (proteins) which may have developed in response to an infection, other foreign proteins, or to one’s own proteins.

Septic complications:

Toxic infections.

Signature(s) of disease:

Measurable parameters that provide evidence of the person's disease activity.

Signature(s) of environmental exposure:

Measurable parameters that provide evidence of the person's exposure to a specific environmental factor.

Toxic megacolon:

an acute condition where the colon is dilated or enlarged, a complication associated with ulcerative colitis.

TPMT:

(thiopurine methyl transferase): a laboratory blood test for the activity of an enzyme that helps in breaking down the medications azathioprine and 6MP, which helps to establish proper dosing of these medications.

US (ultrasound):

n imaging test in which high-frequency sound waves, not heard by the human ear, are transmitted through body tissues using a transducer, relaying information to a computer for display.

Virtual colonoscopy:

a less invasive, new version of colonoscopy, done without sedation and using X-rays and computer-based, virtual-reality technology to produce 3-D images of the lining of the colon. Virtual colonoscopy is not currently used to diagnose or monitor IBD.

Wound repair:

Healing of the intestinal ulcers and post-operative recovery